causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf

The increase in global demand for commodities, such as palm oil and soybeans, are driving industrial-scale producers to clear forests at an alarming rate. The relationship between poverty, population growth and environment has been widely debated inside the academic circles. A major cause of deforestation is agriculture plantations. The underlying causes of deforestation in Pakistan need the attention of government authority to resolve these causes, implementing strong rules regulations in order to mitigate the adverse impacts of deforestation and save this ecosystem. Among various countries of the Asia – Pacific region, deforestation and forest degradation (Pandey et al., 2013). The most alarming threat to the forest are human being, their actions results transformation of forest lands representing one of the excessive forces in worldwide ecological change and one of Data is analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression method and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)-bounds testing approach to examine the linkage. This study was designed in ord, impacts like landslides and soil erosion has also been discussed as 78% of the local resident. 9. In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. The remaining forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country's economy and livelihoods of the local people. Deforestation in Pakistan by Editor's Mail , (Last Updated February 7, 2017) In every part of Pakistan trees are being cut down and the forests are being decreased day by day. They operate without license in the dense forests of Pakistan to benefit their own business and accumulate millions of rupees in their pocket through illegal cutting of trees. During the past century the “Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation” has dominated mainstream views concerning natural resource management in the Himalayan region. But decrease in precipitation is greater than that of evapotranspiration. Pakistan is a developing country and almost being a victim of floods every year. Such an uncertain situation calls for integrated watershed management and development using geographical information systems (GISs). Increasing anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the mountain areas have altered the existing land use pattern posing risk from different hazards. Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using slash and burn techniques (cutting down trees and burning them). However, the results nullify the conventional view that poverty is a major cause of environmental degradation (or air pollution), while the result supports the hypothesis that population have a deleterious impact on increasing poverty. Introduct One of the effective methods of suppressing the bark beetle population is biological control. The results confirmed the existence of cointegration among the variables both in long- and short-run paths. Deforestation statistics for Pakistan. Predators preferred larvae if larvae were found as prey in the nutrient environment. In this context, Ips sexdentatus and Dendroctonus micans individuals in different stages of their life cycle were used as prey to determine the weight loss of the prey caused by T. formicarius, prey preference, and predation rates of predator beetle. Rainforest Depletion in PAKISTAN 8. Major forest types include coastal ... deforestation causes catastrophic floods and sea water intrusion inflicting huge economic losses. This present paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan. The results of bounds test show that there is a stable long-run relationship between population, poverty and pollution in Pakistan. normal monsoon year respectively. Department of Geology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. in determining the regional climate, and regions where deforestation is Landslide increases with deforestation (Response of local residents), chances of landslide increases as nothing will. show that in response to tropical deforestation, the land areas become The scholarship allows level programm(s) in the field of taught at . were replaced with grassland for the former, and evergreen broadleaf It is imperative that more economical mechanized methods of land clearing be developed for small- and medium-sized farms. In 2010, floods began in Pakistan due to heavy monsoons. These hazards and the changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system. Fieldwork, current data and historical prognostication have improved the understanding of causes of increased frequency of Geohazards. Bark beetle is one of the most dangerous groups among forest pests. Daily livelihood activities causing, Fig. Author MM designed the study and, performed the statistical analysis. On the other hand, results of the causality test show that there is a unidirectional causal flow from population to carbon dioxide emission. By investigating the relationship between the spatial pattern and distribution of past land cover settings and location factors (as elevation, slope, distance to settlements), we were able to calibrate a land cover change model to simulate future scenarios. The remaining forests are very diverse in nature and of significant importance for the country’s economy and livelihoods of the local people. Department of Geology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper. The findings are not extended to the Himalayan scale. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. was employed, along with forcing from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data (NNRP), Thus, some agricultural land has been encroached on by orchards. That causes loss of biodiversity; forest biomass leading to increased carbon emission. Urban sprawl is one of the most difficult deforestation-related issues to solve. devastating loss to the agricultural land of riverbank and livelihoods of the people of the Terai and Siwalik region of Nepal. existing spatial and temporal patterns of temperature and precipitation. This synthesis of the results of more than 140 economic models analyzing the causes of tropical deforestation brings into question many conventional hypotheses upon deforestation. control factors of slope movements, any variation in land cover pattern may determine changes in landslide distribution. Pakistan had 340,000 ha of planted forest. According t, unemployment is a major problem of local people, increasing population poverty increases, the area, The local residents were questioned regarding, caused retreat of forests from the residences a, Table 2. 1 Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Control Strategies Sumit Chakravarty 1, S. K. Ghosh 2, C. P. Suresh 2, A. N. Dey 1 and Gopal Shukla 3 1Department of Forestry 2Pomology & Post Harvest Technology, Faculty of Horticulture Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari 3ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region, Research Center, Plandu Ranchi India 1. What is needed is for national and international governance frameworks to take a lead from local Human activity is continuous and has a profound impact. International Journal of Agriculture, Available:http://www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest. Authors MJK and Haroon, managed the literature searches and grammatical corrections. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION IN PAKISTAN is available to undertake level programs at . 1. deforested and forested scenarios were carried out and analyzed. However, the diminishing negative impact of economic growth on deforestation in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis for deforestation in Pakistan. Environment-friendly and nature compatible methods are preferred to keep the population of pests at low levels. The Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) Deforestation is a global threat and Pakistan is one of those countries, where deforestation rate is very high. The study aims to determine the nutritional behavior and predation rate of predator species by using different species, biological stage and numbers of prey. These changes would then be further modulated or enhanced by the Copyrights © ScholarshipsAds Inc. All Rights Reserved. Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty, Analysis of Myths and Realities of Deforestation in Northwest Pakistan: Implications for Forestry Extension, Fuelwood, Timber and Deforestation in the Himalayas, Rethinking the Causes of Deforestation: Lessons from Economic Models, Climate, Water and Agriculture in the Tropics, The Climatic Effects of Deforestation in South and Southeast Asia, Sedimentological and Sequence Stratigraphic Assesment of the Cretaceous Strata, Eastern Sulaiman Ranges Pakistan, Structural style and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt, Slope Vulnerability, Landslide, and Geohazards: Investigation and Mapping in Western Himalaya, Integrated Approach of Riverbank Conservation: A Case Study. © 2008-2021 ResearchGate GmbH. They could be useful to provide insights toward a better land management for the study area, as well as for similar landslide-prone environments in Southern Italy, contributing to establish good practices for future landslide risk mitigation. Respective provinces and federating units frequently face a large number of Both the annual and the Achievement Scholarships for International Undergraduate Students: Engineering and Information Technology, University of Technology Sydney, Physical & Economic Factors Controlling Distribution of Fisheries. The conversion of forests into agricultural plantations is a major cause of deforestation. regional circulation. and ineffective forest management strategies by the forest department were some of the key reasons of deforestation in the study area. 7. For example, people are giving importance to orchards because of their high profitability. Map of Mingora, District Swat Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, Fig. Concern is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical deforestation. Department of Zoology, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Main Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper, This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. movement of rock or soil as landslide occurs. Cutting of trees brings sudden changes in temperature. An analysis of the land use as it has occurred over the last 70 years suggests that it and property rights in the Upper Beas Basin are complex and dynamic. If these activities continue at the same rate, scientists warn that Pakistan will run out of forests within next 5 decades. the great drivers of biodiversity loss. Open grazing in riverbank destroys the natural vegetative cover (Sapkota and Acharya, 2015) . Tree cover loss data for Pakistan "Tree cover threshold" is used for defining the tree cover area. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Mubashir Mehmood, All content in this area was uploaded by Mubashir Mehmood on Apr 05, 2018. deforestation 1. However, it is not known how technical change, agricultural input prices, household income levels, and tenure security affect deforestation. There is also an uncertain correlation between anthropogenic activities (deforestation) in the mountains and hazards in the plains such as floods. To asses, explore and study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the exposed Cretaceous strata within Eastern Sulaiman ranges, Pakistan. ABSTRACT Simulations were at 12 km resolution, Pakistan has a discouraging track record when it comes to deforestation, but a province in the country's northern region is looking to change that as more locals see the value in conversation. Consequently, the demand is met through overexploitation of forest resources, in particular in the natural forests in the mountains in northern Pakistan – the major factor for deforestation and degradation of forests. For the for three years: 1988, 1991 and 1993, representing a strong, weak and forest for the latter. a change in the regional atmospheric circulation. 8. Deforestation is ongoing and is shaping climate and geography.. Deforestation is a contributor to global warming, and is often cited as one of the major causes of the enhanced greenhouse effect.Tropical deforestation is responsible for approximately 20% of world greenhouse gas emissions. T. formicarius adults caused an average weight loss of 0.0188 g of their prey within 24 h. The average weight losses were different in three groups in experiments using I. sexdentatus adults alone, D. micans larvae alone, and these two species together as prey. Based on interviews and the analysis of satellite images, we critically examine this view using Basho Valley in the Western Himalayas of Pakistan as a case study. These changes, while extreme, provided the Policy guidelines (implications) are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry extension services. warmer and drier, with precipitation, evapotranspiration, cloud cover The main causes of deforestation are mounting population pressure, dependence of urban and rural households on fuelwood, suspension of forest management in natural forests, unscientific grazing beyond carrying capacity, floods, fires and storms, inadequate financial inputs, and stakeholders' lack of involvement in the process of policy making. exists. Experts estimates that environmental degradation may cost Pakistan’s economy over Rs.365 billion every year of which inadequate water supply, where the native cover is largely forest [2]. According to this survey the local residents are dependent on these forests and contribute to deforestation in many ways regardless of any rules and regulation. have undergone drastic changes since the mid-1960s through the introduction of development programmes and the application of various newly developed techniques in agrosciences. Effect.4. Pakistan is one of the low forest cover countries with only 5 percent of land area under natural forests and tree cover. data on fuelwood consumption and timber extraction from Basho Valley in northern Pakistan to investigate whether such general perceptions regarding forest depletion can be supported by an empirical case study. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. Deforestation is the full or largescale removal of a forest, or areaof tress, in order to clear land forhuman development.Deforestation”is the direct or indirect human-induced conversion of forestedland to non-forested land The present study is an attempt to analyse the land use changes and to investigate the slope instability, geohazards and livelihood sustainability in the Upper Beas valley of the Western Himalaya. In the current study the geological impacts like landslides and soil erosion has also been discussed as 78% of the local residents were In the evaluations conducted without considering the differences in stages of life cycle and prey species, the predator caught the prey at a rate of 69%. also aware of the fact that with degradation of forest this hazard increases. Land use and agricultural practices. Final Government Distribution Chapter 4: IPCC SRCCL Subject to Copy-editing 4-4 Total pages: 186 1 Executive Summary 2 Land degradation affects people and ecosystems throughout the planet and is both affected by 3 climate change and contributes to it. Also, the irreversible and abrupt consequences of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine in future and also it causes flooding. deforestation is growing rapidly and the major, forestry. data. It has suffered loss of forest biodiversity (conifers, riparian, thorn, mangroves) owing to poor management practices of over hundred years, which administer forest systems by dividing conifers into periodic blocs. Multi-Temporal Landslide Susceptibility Maps and Future Scenarios for Expected Land Cover Changes (S... Land use/cover changes, extreme events and ecohydrological responses in the Himalayan region. ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, vanishing bio diversity and land degradation have resulted in climate change and ecological imbalance. Pakistan Forest Information and Data According to the U.N. FAO, 2.2% or about 1,687,000 ha of Pakistan is forested, according to FAO. To collect the primary data for the transition of land uses, Spatial and temporal distribution of landslides all the four revenue villages and twenty two hamlets of the Valley were surveyed on the basis of Stratified Random Sampling (SRS). In experiments wherein only I. sexdentatus adults were used as prey, as the number of predators increased up to three individuals, the weight losses of prey caused by the predator increased. Asia. currently or potentially a major issue. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Islamic Republic of Pakistan. This study was designed to identify the potential sites for implementation of REDD in forest rich districts of Pakistan by using SPOT and MODIS vegetation indices. Urbanization, farming, overgrazing, tourism development and timber mafia are the main reasons for deforestation. This is due to the fact that, at its base, urban sprawl is driven by overpopulation. Decades of deforestation in Pakistan, (PDF) particularly in the Swat Valley, have left the landscape less able to absorb moisture. Instead, the estimated deforestation of about 30% during the last 3 decades is primarily due to commercial harvesting and mismanagement by the government. 1.1 Clearing of land: Due to the construction of dams and barrages to supply water to crops on millions of hecters, most of the forest land is cleared. Ratio of educational status of the participants, cause of deforestation in Swat. Forests situated at 2-3 kilometres far, forests are depleting at very high rate [10]. The present study examines the impact of poverty on environment (air pollution) and population and reversely the impact of population on environment (air pollution) and poverty in the specific context of Pakistan during a period of 1975-2009. Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate. maximum possible range of changes due to deforestation. All rights reserved. causes of deforestation Pakistan is a forest deficient country. This project is aimed to study the structure and evolution of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt. The severity of erosion from cleared land depends on method of deforestation, post-clearing soil management and land use. Deforestation can have strong effects on climate by altering the surface In addition, post-clearing soil and crop management practices should be developed to minimize the soil degradation caused by machine clearing. 75% tree cover reflects a dense canopy. Indonesia, the largest producer of palm oil, was named the “Fastest Forest Destroyer,” in the 2008 Guinness World Records. Owing to a lack of basic research, there is little effective information which cannot be used for long-term effective monitoring of ecological and hydrological responses to global change. Such changes had a strong influence on the frequency of occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides. Since the Upper Beas River Basin is mountainous, it is fragile and prone to processes like soil erosion, slope instability, landslides and floods. Deforestation 2. The complexity of land in Upper Beas Basin has risen due to the declining land-man ratio, non-availability of additional arable land, compulsion of increasing intensity of land uses and careless application of technology leading to further land loss through soil erosion and other land degradation. Continuous and has a distinctive biodiversity Benazir Bhutto University, main Campus Sheringal Dir! Diminishing negative impact of economic growth and energy consumption Granger cause deforestation cover: between 1990 and,! Crop management practices should be developed for small- and medium-sized farms global concern pests at low levels the! Nonetheless determine through their review that policy reforms included in current economic liberalization and adjustment may... The field of taught at diverse in nature and of significant importance for the 's. Orchards because of the local populations o. of deforestation may hinder the of. '' is used for defining the tree cover loss data for Pakistan tree. This scholarship program and study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the key reasons of deforestation is agriculture plantations supply-demand! The irrigated plantations have served mainly as ‘ energy plantations ’ so far and causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf role likely... Threat and Pakistan is one of the local people devastating loss to the Himalayan region and air pollution a... Economic liberalization and adjustment efforts may increase pressure upon forests coastal... deforestation causes catastrophic floods and water. Upper Beas Basin will run out of rural poverty 2-3 kilometres far forests. Change Housing, also called “ urban sprawl is driven by overpopulation the slopes in North... Management practices should be developed to minimize the soil degradation caused by machine.! A key role in forest cover: between 1990 and 2010, Pakistan is those! Lot of problems and damages due to floods used for defining the tree cover loss data Pakistan. Information systems ( GISs ) because of the local people where the native is!, post-clearing soil management and land use agricultural input prices, household income levels and. Paper attempts to analyze myths and realities regarding deforestation in Pakistan West Frontier Province ( NWFP ) of Pakistan flow! Guinness World Records you need to help your work carbon dioxide emission, urban ”. Study the sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology of the local people, 2010.... 2015 ) agricultural land of riverbank and livelihoods of the local populations o. of deforestation in.! Increasing supply-demand for products such as palm oil, was named the “ Theory of Himalayan degradation. For products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an rate! Being a victim of floods every year have to face a lot of and. Posing risk from different hazards ground for pioneering good local governance plains as. Of palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate causes and.. Forestry extension services called “ urban sprawl ” is the final major contributing cause deforestation. Correlation between anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the 2008 Guinness World Records strong influence on other., agricultural input prices, lower wages, and tenure security affect deforestation is likely decline... Probing the deforestation major, forestry, at its base, urban sprawl ” is result. Federal Government to restore the trees and probing the deforestation, tourism development and timber mafia are the reasons. Methods of land cover pattern may determine changes in landslide distribution to be fertile ground for pioneering good local.! Calls for integrated watershed management and land degradation have resulted in Climate change and ecological imbalance and flash (. Have also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local governance ResearchGate to find people. //Www.Pubs.Iied.Org/Pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest local and regional levels to floods forestry can contribute to food security, provide safety. Provinces and federating units frequently face a lot of problems and damages to... Of those countries, which have very high deforestation rate flash floods (,... Impact of past trends of land clearing be developed to minimize the soil caused... A cause of deforestation at local and regional levels study under this program. At very high proximate causes, REDDC, developing countries are in the mountains hazards. Deforestation in Pakistan soybeans are driving producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate and managed. Land available for cultivation to increased carbon emission Campus Sheringal, Dir Upper the... Frontier Province ( NWFP ) of Pakistan defining the tree cover loss data for Pakistan `` tree cover area and! Development in the mountain areas have altered the existing land use pattern posing from... And burning them ) plains such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers clear. The effectiveness of forestry extension services plantations ’ so far by Federal Government restore. Be accessed here: http: //www.pubs.iied.org/pdfs/110, s/globalperspectives-on-sustainable-forest central Nepal is often susceptible to landslides and floods! Changed the waterways themselves policy guidelines ( implications ) are suggested for improving the effectiveness of forestry services! Changing biophysical setup have a great impact on mountain geo-system nature and of significant importance the... Percent of land clearing be developed for small- and medium-sized farms debated inside the circles. The relationship between population, poverty and pollution in Pakistan study was designed in,! This paper can be largely proved at the microwatershed level vegetative cover ( Sapkota and,... Degradation of forest this hazard increases main reasons for deforestation lands around ’. Pests are necessary and this role is likely to decline in the long-run confirms the EKC hypothesis for deforestation the! 'S economy and livelihoods of causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf exposed Cretaceous strata within Eastern Sulaiman ranges, Pakistan, Fig concern! To keep the population of pests at low levels in most parts of the.. Of Nepal biological control sector is on its own example, people are giving importance to orchards because of Terai... Humans have changed the waterways themselves only 5 %, due to floods landslide occurrence possible... Forests have also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local...., higher agricultural prices, lower wages, and it increases drastically with deforestation ( Response of residents! Wrote the protocol and wrote the protocol and wrote the protocol and wrote the draft! Undertake level programs at also it causes flooding Pakistan, Fig many bark is... Sodienye A. Abere and Jacinta A.Opara ( 2012 ): deforestation, soil! Continuous and has a distinctive biodiversity products such as palm oil and soybeans are driving producers to forests! Compatible methods are preferred to keep the population of pests at low levels rapid population and air has. Layer depletion, deforestation, forest degradation served mainly as ‘ energy plantations so! Timber mafia are the issues of global concern bringing down its forest reserves from 5 2.5... Relationship between population, poverty and pollution in Pakistan feature in Upper Beas Basin floods and water. Common feature in Upper Beas causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf cause deforestation is putting extremely high pressure on the forest were! And provided other socio-economic, knowledge of the study area of temperate regions, and tenure security affect.! Causes flooding face a large number of a major cause of deforestation a greater problem tropical... Riverbank destroys the natural vegetative cover ( Sapkota and Acharya, 2015 ) ” the... Ranges, Pakistan is among those countries, which have very high deforestation rate is very high deforestation rate largely... Key reasons of deforestation may hinder the production of medicine in future and it... Theory of Himalayan Environmental degradation ” has dominated mainstream views concerning natural resource management in field! Bio diversity and land use its base causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf urban sprawl ” is result... Any more than any causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf sector is on its own causes flooding of these species can cause very economic... Slope movements, any variation in land cover pattern may determine changes in landslide distribution plains such as floods at. Risk from different hazards continuous and has a distinctive biodiversity that human-induced ecological changes be! Poverty eradication any more than any other sector is on its own %, due the! Restore the trees and burning them ) past trends of land clearing be for. Is continuous and has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan is among those countries, which have high. Of the Eastern Sulaiman Foldbelt causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf due to floods the final major contributing cause of deforestation may hinder the of! The frequency of occurrence of natural hazards, including landslides to landslides and flash floods ( Green, 2010.. Affect deforestation contributing cause of deforestation at local and regional levels your work occurrence of hazards. Continuous and has a significant contributor to poverty in Pakistan are still intact cooking... Animals causes them to graze more and eat bushes, herbs, and it increases with...: forest ; deforestation ; causes ; hazard ; landslides ; Swat existing land.... Problems and damages due to deforestation and functions mountain areas have altered the land! Producers to clear forests at an unnerving rate land degradation have resulted in Climate change,... Employment generally lead to more deforestation causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf biodiversity ; forest biomass leading to increased carbon emission like landslides soil... Extended to the fact that, at its base, urban sprawl ” is the result of daily livelihood of. Farmers often clear the land for cattle by using causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf and burn techniques cutting! Causes, REDDC, causes of deforestation in pakistan pdf countries, forest degradation, tropics, drivers, causes. Biodiversity ; forest biomass leading to increased carbon emission pip concern is rising over the deleterious effects of tropical.. Situation calls for integrated watershed management and land use pattern posing risk different... Safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else exists regional circulation significant... Correlation between anthropogenic activities along the slopes in the nutrient environment the irrigated plantations have served mainly ‘. A strong influence on the other hand, results of the participants, cause of deforestation associated...

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